multilateral diplomacy
multilateral diplomacy



The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a unique exercise in the United Nations human rights system, where the practice of human rights in each Member State will be reviewed. This process is presently anchored by the Geneva-based Human Rights Council (HRC).


As a founding member of the HRC, Malaysia had fully supported proposals for the establishment of a State-driven peer-review mechanism (which later evolved into the UPR) as a much preferred alternative compared to country-specific resolutions (CSRs) that often failed to enjoy consensus. 


Undergoing the UPR exercise is an obligation for all UN member states. It is essentially a 3 ½ hour structured dialogue process between the State under Review (SuR) and other UN member states.


During this dialogue, other Member States can request for clarification on the issues discussed, offer their comments, and recommend steps to be taken to improve the situation of human rights of the SuR. After the conclusion of the dialogue, the SuR is given approximately 48 hours (2 working days) to indicate their position on the recommendations raised during the dialogue.


The UPR represents a collaborative and cooperative effort on the part of all UN member states to engage positively and constructively in a dialogue process to share knowledge, experience and best practices, as well as constraints and challenges faced in promoting and protecting human rights in their respective countries.


Malaysia underwent its first UPR in February 2009. At that time, the Government accepted outright 62 out of 103 recommendations addressed to it by various countries. Malaysia further clarified its position on a further 19 recommendations raised during the adoption of Malaysia’s UPR report in June 2009 and did not support 22 recommendations.


Malaysia underwent its second UPR in October 2013. Malaysia stated its position on the 232 recommendations it had received, where 150 recommendations were able to enjoy support, and the remaining 82 were not. Malaysia also delivered a statement to clarify the national position on human rights issues in the country, especially in relation to recommendations which did not enjoy the support of the Government.






GMM was first introduced by YAB Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato' Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak during his maiden speech at the 65th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on 27 September 2010 where he urged members and leaders of the world's major faiths to censure and reject their own extremists and jointly support GMM.


Since its introduction, Wisma Putra has been at the forefront of efforts to promote GMM and moderation at the international level. 

The GMM initiative has been welcomed by various countries. At the ASEAN fora, the Langkawi Declaration on the Global Movement of Moderates was adopted on 27 April 2015 in Langkawi during the 26th ASEAN Summit. 


It embodies ASEAN’s pledge to promote moderation as an ASEAN value that promotes peace, security and development as well as promotes the approach moderation in the conduct of interstate relations. 

The GMM concept could be explained as follows:



Malaysia continues to promote the concept of moderation at the international level through diplomatic channels, the GMM Foundation (GMMF), the Academic Chair on Wasatiyyah at the University of Malaya (UM) and the Institute of Wasatiyyah, with the aim of exploring cooperation on GMM and promoting moderation as an approach towards global peace and justice. The GMMF  was established in April 2012 as a think tank for the pursuit, development and sharing of the GMM approach and operationalize it into practical and impactful initiatives.


Malaysia’s campaign to the UN Security Council (UNSC), themed “Peace and Security through Moderation” highlights Malaysia’s strong belief that the practice of moderation can maintain peace, stability and unity. Malaysia believes that the United Nations (UN) could be used by its Member States and the international community as a platform to explore ways and means for the possible application of moderation to current challenges. The GMM as a whole can complement the mission and work of the UN system at various levels that seek to promote understanding, tolerance and responsibility as well as to advance an agenda for peace, harmony and justice.




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